【Rocky 9】Rocky Linux 9.2 升级 9.3,及新特性实践

【Rocky 9】Rocky Linux 9.2 升级 9.3,及新特性实践

ShawnYan Lv.6
rocky-linux.png

发版计划

前面介绍了如何安装和升级 Rocky Linux 9.2 操作系统,按照 RHEL 的发版计划,RHEL 9.3 已于 11 月 7 日发版,而 Rocky Linux 作为 RHEL 的下游,也于近日发布更新。

先来回顾一下 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Version 9 的生命周期。
依据官网说明,RHEL 9 每六个月发版一次,9.3 于 23 年 11 月发版,9.4 将在 24 年 2 月发布。
已发布的版本信息如下:

发布版本 GA 日期 内核版本
RHEL 9.3 2023-11-07 5.14.0-362.8.1.el9_3
RHEL 9.2 2023-05-10 5.14.0-284.11.1.el9_2
RHEL 9.1 2022-11-15 5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1
RHEL 9.0 2022-05-17 5.14.0-70.13.1.el9_0
rhel9lifecycle.png

升级到 Rocky 9.3

这里使用 dnf 在线升级,如果是内网用户,建议先查验 yum 源是否已更新。如果没有中央 yum 源,可以下载最新的 Rocky Linux 9.3 镜像,手动挂载,并配置本地 yum 源,然后再进行升级。

  1. 检查当前的 Release 版本和 Kernel 版本。
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cat /etc/redhat-release
uname -a

输出:

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ cat /etc/redhat-release
Rocky Linux release 9.2 (Blue Onyx)
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ uname -a
Linux rocky9.shawnyan.cn 5.14.0-284.30.1.el9_2.x86_64 #1 SMP PREEMPT_DYNAMIC Sat Sep 16 09:55:41 UTC 2023 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$
  1. 在线升级。
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dnf -y upgrade

输出日志:

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ sudo dnf -y upgrade --allowerasing
Last metadata expiration check: 0:00:19 ago on Tue 21 Nov 2023 01:33:19 PM UTC.
Dependencies resolved.
==============================================================================================================================================
Package Architecture Version Repository Size
==============================================================================================================================================
Installing:
kernel x86_64 5.14.0-362.8.1.el9_3 baseos 5.1 M
Upgrading:
NetworkManager x86_64 1:1.44.0-3.el9 baseos 2.2 M
NetworkManager-adsl x86_64 1:1.44.0-3.el9 baseos 36 k
...
gcc x86_64 11.4.1-2.1.el9 appstream 32 M
gcc-c++ x86_64 11.4.1-2.1.el9 appstream 13 M
gcc-plugin-annobin x86_64 11.4.1-2.1.el9 appstream 48 k
gcc-toolset-12-binutils x86_64 2.38-19.el9 appstream 5.4 M
gcc-toolset-12-binutils-gold x86_64 2.38-19.el9 appstream 771 k
gdb x86_64 10.2-11.el9 appstream 121 k
gdb-headless x86_64 10.2-11.el9 appstream 3.9 M
...
iproute x86_64 6.2.0-5.el9 baseos 786 k
iproute-tc x86_64 6.2.0-5.el9 baseos 448 k
...
kernel-headers x86_64 5.14.0-362.8.1.el9_3 appstream 6.5 M
kernel-srpm-macros noarch 1.0-13.el9 appstream 15 k
kernel-tools x86_64 5.14.0-362.8.1.el9_3 baseos 5.3 M
kernel-tools-libs x86_64 5.14.0-362.8.1.el9_3 baseos 5.1 M
...
rocky-backgrounds noarch 90.14-2.el9 appstream 61 M
rocky-gpg-keys noarch 9.3-1.1.el9 baseos 13 k
rocky-logos x86_64 90.14-2.el9 appstream 715 k
rocky-release noarch 9.3-1.1.el9 baseos 23 k
rocky-repos noarch 9.3-1.1.el9 baseos 13 k
...
Installing dependencies:
debugedit x86_64 5.0-4.el9 appstream 76 k
kbd-legacy noarch 2.4.0-9.el9 baseos 502 k
kernel-core x86_64 5.14.0-362.8.1.el9_3 baseos 20 M
kernel-modules x86_64 5.14.0-362.8.1.el9_3 baseos 37 M
kernel-modules-core x86_64 5.14.0-362.8.1.el9_3 baseos 32 M
libtraceevent x86_64 1.5.3-3.el9 baseos 213 k
liburing x86_64 2.3-2.el9 appstream 26 k
libxcvt x86_64 0.1.2-2.el9 appstream 13 k
Installing weak dependencies:
kernel-devel x86_64 5.14.0-362.8.1.el9_3 appstream 20 M
Removing dependent packages:
libstdc++-static x86_64 11.3.1-4.3.el9 @devel 6.5 M
libtirpc-devel x86_64 1.3.3-1.el9 @devel 251 k

Transaction Summary
==============================================================================================================================================
Install 10 Packages
Upgrade 459 Packages
Remove 2 Packages

Total download size: 1.1 G
...
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total 2.5 MB/s | 1.1 GB 07:11
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
Running scriptlet: selinux-policy-targeted-38.1.23-1.el9.noarch 1/1
Running scriptlet: kmod-kvdo-8.2.1.6-98.el9.x86_64 1/1
Preparing : 1/1
Upgrading : libgcc-11.4.1-2.1.el9.x86_64 1/930
Running scriptlet: libgcc-11.4.1-2.1.el9.x86_64 1/930
...
20231121_140107.png

受系统资源和网速的影响,整个升级过程约半小时。

  1. 升级后查验。

升级完成后,再次查看版本信息。

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cat /etc/redhat-release
uname -a

输出:

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ cat /etc/redhat-release
Rocky Linux release 9.3 (Blue Onyx)
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ uname -a
Linux rocky9.shawnyan.cn 5.14.0-362.8.1.el9_3.x86_64 #1 SMP PREEMPT_DYNAMIC Wed Nov 8 17:36:32 UTC 2023 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$

主要更新

Kernel 内核版本

上文的表格中已经标记了 RHEL 的内核版本,Rocky Linux 与 RHEL 保持一致,在 Rocky 9.2 中是 5.14.0-284.11.1.el9_2

我本地环境升级过,所以小版本号略高一点:

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ uname -r
5.14.0-284.30.1.el9_2.x86_64

而在 Rocky 9.3 中,默认的内核版本升级为 5.14.0-362.8.1.el9_3

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ uname -r
5.14.0-362.8.1.el9_3.x86_64

编译工具 GCC

GCC (GNU Compiler Collection) 提供了使用C、c++ 和 Fortran 编程语言开发应用程序的工具。

在 Rocky 9.2 中,GCC 工具的版本默认为 11.3.1。同时,可以通过安装 gcc-toolset 将其版本升级到 12。

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ gcc --version
gcc (GCC) 11.3.1 20221121 (Red Hat 11.3.1-4)
Copyright (C) 2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ rpm -qa | grep gcc-toolset
gcc-toolset-12-runtime-12.0-6.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-12-annobin-docs-11.08-2.el9.noarch
gcc-toolset-12-libstdc++-devel-12.2.1-7.4.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-12-binutils-gold-2.38-17.el9_2.1.x86_64
gcc-toolset-12-binutils-2.38-17.el9_2.1.x86_64
gcc-toolset-12-gcc-12.2.1-7.4.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-12-gcc-c++-12.2.1-7.4.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-12-annobin-plugin-gcc-11.08-2.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-12-annobin-annocheck-11.08-2.el9.x86_64
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ scl enable gcc-toolset-12 bash
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ gcc --version
gcc (GCC) 12.2.1 20221121 (Red Hat 12.2.1-7)
Copyright (C) 2022 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

在 Rocky 9.3 中,GCC 版本升级到了 11.4.1。

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ gcc --version
gcc (GCC) 11.4.1 20230605 (Red Hat 11.4.1-2)
Copyright (C) 2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ rpm -qa | grep gcc-toolset

同时,可以通过安装 gcc-toolset 将其版本升级到 13。

  • 安装 GCC Toolset 13
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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ sudo dnf install gcc-toolset-13
Last metadata expiration check: 0:02:04 ago on Tue 21 Nov 2023 02:06:55 PM UTC.
Dependencies resolved.
=========================================================================================================================
Package Architecture Version Repository Size
=========================================================================================================================
Installing:
gcc-toolset-13 x86_64 13.0-2.el9 appstream 9.9 k
Installing dependencies:
gcc-toolset-13-annobin-docs noarch 12.20-1.el9 appstream 95 k
gcc-toolset-13-annobin-plugin-gcc x86_64 12.20-1.el9 appstream 960 k
gcc-toolset-13-binutils x86_64 2.40-13.el9 appstream 5.6 M
gcc-toolset-13-binutils-gold x86_64 2.40-13.el9 appstream 803 k
gcc-toolset-13-dwz x86_64 0.14-0.el9 appstream 126 k
gcc-toolset-13-gcc x86_64 13.1.1-4.2.el9 appstream 43 M
gcc-toolset-13-gcc-c++ x86_64 13.1.1-4.2.el9 appstream 13 M
gcc-toolset-13-gcc-gfortran x86_64 13.1.1-4.2.el9 appstream 14 M
gcc-toolset-13-gdb x86_64 12.1-3.el9 appstream 4.3 M
gcc-toolset-13-libquadmath-devel x86_64 13.1.1-4.2.el9 appstream 185 k
gcc-toolset-13-libstdc++-devel x86_64 13.1.1-4.2.el9 appstream 3.3 M
gcc-toolset-13-runtime x86_64 13.0-2.el9 appstream 27 k
libgfortran x86_64 11.4.1-2.1.el9 baseos 807 k
libquadmath x86_64 11.4.1-2.1.el9 baseos 197 k

Transaction Summary
=========================================================================================================================
Install 15 Packages

Total download size: 87 M
Installed size: 255 M
...
Installed:
gcc-toolset-13-13.0-2.el9.x86_64 gcc-toolset-13-annobin-docs-12.20-1.el9.noarch
gcc-toolset-13-annobin-plugin-gcc-12.20-1.el9.x86_64 gcc-toolset-13-binutils-2.40-13.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-binutils-gold-2.40-13.el9.x86_64 gcc-toolset-13-dwz-0.14-0.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-gcc-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64 gcc-toolset-13-gcc-c++-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-gcc-gfortran-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64 gcc-toolset-13-gdb-12.1-3.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-libquadmath-devel-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64 gcc-toolset-13-libstdc++-devel-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-runtime-13.0-2.el9.x86_64 libgfortran-11.4.1-2.1.el9.x86_64
libquadmath-11.4.1-2.1.el9.x86_64

Complete!
Installed:
gcc-toolset-13-13.0-2.el9.x86_64 gcc-toolset-13-annobin-docs-12.20-1.el9.noarch
gcc-toolset-13-annobin-plugin-gcc-12.20-1.el9.x86_64 gcc-toolset-13-binutils-2.40-13.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-binutils-gold-2.40-13.el9.x86_64 gcc-toolset-13-dwz-0.14-0.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-gcc-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64 gcc-toolset-13-gcc-c++-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-gcc-gfortran-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64 gcc-toolset-13-gdb-12.1-3.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-libquadmath-devel-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64 gcc-toolset-13-libstdc++-devel-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-runtime-13.0-2.el9.x86_64 libgfortran-11.4.1-2.1.el9.x86_64
libquadmath-11.4.1-2.1.el9.x86_64

Complete!
  • 查看 GCC Toolset 13 安装包
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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ rpm -qa | grep gcc-toolset-13
gcc-toolset-13-runtime-13.0-2.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-libstdc++-devel-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-annobin-docs-12.20-1.el9.noarch
gcc-toolset-13-binutils-gold-2.40-13.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-binutils-2.40-13.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-gcc-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-libquadmath-devel-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-gcc-gfortran-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-gcc-c++-13.1.1-4.2.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-annobin-plugin-gcc-12.20-1.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-gdb-12.1-3.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-dwz-0.14-0.el9.x86_64
gcc-toolset-13-13.0-2.el9.x86_64
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$
  • 运行会话,查看 gcc 版本
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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ scl enable gcc-toolset-13 bash
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ gcc --version
gcc (GCC) 13.1.1 20230614 (Red Hat 13.1.1-4)
Copyright (C) 2023 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$

Java 运行环境

在 Rocky 9.2 中,appstream 仓库中包含 OpenJDK 1.8.0/11/17 三个版本。

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ cat /etc/redhat-release
Rocky Linux release 9.2 (Blue Onyx)
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ yum list java-*-openjdk
Last metadata expiration check: 4 days, 18:16:06 ago on Sat 11 Nov 2023 08:35:35 PM UTC.
Available Packages
java-1.8.0-openjdk.x86_64 1:1.8.0.392.b08-3.el9 appstream
java-11-openjdk.x86_64 1:11.0.21.0.9-2.el9 appstream
java-17-openjdk.x86_64 1:17.0.9.0.9-2.el9 appstream

而在 Rocky 9.3 中,appstream 仓库新增包含了 OpenJDK 21。

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ cat /etc/redhat-release
Rocky Linux release 9.3 (Blue Onyx)
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ yum list java-*-openjdk
Rocky Linux 9 - AppStream 5.4 MB/s | 7.4 MB 00:01
Rocky Linux 9 - BaseOS 2.5 MB/s | 2.2 MB 00:00
Rocky Linux 9 - Extras 30 kB/s | 13 kB 00:00
Available Packages
java-1.8.0-openjdk.x86_64 1:1.8.0.392.b08-3.el9 appstream
java-11-openjdk.x86_64 1:11.0.21.0.9-2.el9 appstream
java-17-openjdk.x86_64 1:17.0.9.0.9-2.el9 appstream
java-21-openjdk.x86_64 1:21.0.1.0.12-3.el9 appstream
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$

DBMS 数据库

在 Rocky 9.2 中,默认提供四种数据库: MariaDB 10.5, MySQL 8.0, PostgreSQL 13/15, Redis 6。

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ cat /etc/redhat-release
Rocky Linux release 9.2 (Blue Onyx)
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ yum list mariadb-server*
Last metadata expiration check: 5 days, 12:24:51 ago on Sat 11 Nov 2023 08:35:35 PM UTC.
Available Packages
mariadb-server.x86_64 3:10.5.22-1.el9_2 appstream
mariadb-server-galera.x86_64 3:10.5.22-1.el9_2 appstream
mariadb-server-utils.x86_64 3:10.5.22-1.el9_2 appstream
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ yum list mysql-server*
Last metadata expiration check: 5 days, 12:24:53 ago on Sat 11 Nov 2023 08:35:35 PM UTC.
Available Packages
mysql-server.x86_64 8.0.32-1.el9_2 appstream
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ yum list postgresql-server*
Last metadata expiration check: 5 days, 12:24:58 ago on Sat 11 Nov 2023 08:35:35 PM UTC.
Available Packages
postgresql-server.x86_64 13.11-1.el9_2 appstream
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ dnf list redis
Last metadata expiration check: 5 days, 13:58:28 ago on Sat 11 Nov 2023 08:35:35 PM UTC.
Available Packages
redis.x86_64 6.2.7-1.el9 appstream
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$

升级到 Rocky 9.3 之后,由于时间关系,这四种准预装的数据库版本尚未更新。这里暂且留个 TODO,我们之后再看。

此外,从 RHEL 9.2 开始,引入了 postgresql:15 模块流,可以通过以下方式进行安装 PG15.

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ sudo dnf module install postgresql:15/server
Last metadata expiration check: 2:39:51 ago on Fri 17 Nov 2023 07:07:33 AM UTC.
Dependencies resolved.
=========================================================================================================================
Package Architecture Version Repository Size
=========================================================================================================================
Installing group/module packages:
postgresql-server x86_64 15.3-1.module+el9.2.0+14925+a515b28a appstream 6.1 M
Installing dependencies:
postgresql x86_64 15.3-1.module+el9.2.0+14925+a515b28a appstream 1.6 M
postgresql-private-libs x86_64 15.3-1.module+el9.2.0+14925+a515b28a appstream 137 k
Installing module profiles:
postgresql/server
Enabling module streams:
postgresql 15

Transaction Summary
=========================================================================================================================
Install 3 Packages

Total download size: 7.8 M
Installed size: 32 M

iproute

iproute 是高级IP路由和网络设备配置工具,包括常用的网络,如 ip, ss, tc 等。

在 Rocky 9.2 中,iproute 的版本为 6.1.0。

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ cat /etc/redhat-release
Rocky Linux release 9.2 (Blue Onyx)
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ rpm -qa | grep iproute
iproute-6.1.0-1.el9.x86_64
iproute-tc-6.1.0-1.el9.x86_64
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$

升级到 Rocky 9.3 后,iproute 的版本为 6.2.0。

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ cat /etc/redhat-release
Rocky Linux release 9.3 (Blue Onyx)
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ rpm -qa | grep iproute
iproute-6.2.0-5.el9.x86_64
iproute-tc-6.2.0-5.el9.x86_64
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$

这里介绍一个新命令,ip stats,可以管理、显示接口状态信息,默认显示所有网络设备,包括 bridges 和 bonds,也可以通过 devgroup 过滤信息。

例如:

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[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$ ip stats show dev ens33
2: ens33: group offload subgroup hw_stats_info
l3_stats off used off
2: ens33: group xstats_slave subgroup bond suite 802.3ad
2: ens33: group xstats_slave subgroup bridge suite mcast
2: ens33: group xstats_slave subgroup bridge suite stp
2: ens33: group xstats subgroup bond suite 802.3ad
2: ens33: group xstats subgroup bridge suite mcast
2: ens33: group xstats subgroup bridge suite stp
2: ens33: group afstats subgroup mpls
2: ens33: group offload subgroup l3_stats off used off
2: ens33: group offload subgroup cpu_hit

2: ens33: group link
RX: bytes packets errors dropped missed mcast
137826417 94630 0 0 0 0
TX: bytes packets errors dropped carrier collsns
2292768 36535 0 0 0 0
[shawnyan@rocky9 ~]$

总结

本文演示了如何将 Rocky Linux 9.2 升级到 9.3,并着重介绍了几点值得一看的新特性。

Rocky Linux 9.3 是 23 年发行的第二个大版本,相信已经有企业将 Rocky 9 用于生产环境。

关于 Rocky 9 的更多分享,还将继续。


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  • 本文标题: 【Rocky 9】Rocky Linux 9.2 升级 9.3,及新特性实践
  • 本文作者: ShawnYan
  • 创建时间: 2023-11-17 12:07:36
  • 更新时间: 2023-11-21 14:33:19
  • 本文链接: https://shawnyan.cn/2023/linux/rocky-9.3-upgrade-from-9.2/
  • 版权声明: 本文为原创文章,遵循 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 版权协议,转载请附上文章出处,文章链接和本声明。
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